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Portugal - Home

11th Period - First Republic of Portugal
(20th Century)

20th C. --

Republican Period (1910-1917)

1910 5th October - Joaquim Teófila Fernandes Braga becomes Provisional President and Prime Minister (1910-1911)
1910 8th October - All Jesuits are expelled form Portugal
1910 9th October - All political prisoners are released -particularly the "Carbonária" who organised past bombings
1910 Strong discord between the new Republican leaders and the Church
1910 17th October - Student riots in Coimbra against royalist professors
1910 20th October - leaders of the Church abandon Lisbon
1910 22nd October - Brazil and Argentina official recognise Portugal as a Republic
1910 10th November - Britain officially recognises Republican Portugal
1910 15th November - Wave of civil strikes
1910 1st December - New national flag inaugurated
1911 7th January - Railway workers strike is violently controlled by police
1911 22nd May - National currency converted from "Real" to "Escudos"
1911 28th May - Rebuplicans sweep to victory in elections
1911 July - Germany attempt to occupy Morocco in its plans to take over Africa
1911 24th August - Manuel José de Arriaga Brum de Silveira becomes President (1911-1915)
1911 25th August - New Republican Constitution introduced
1911 Women are given the vote for the first time
1911 4th September - João Pinheiro Chagas becomes Prime Minister (1911)
1911 4th November - Angola authorities plead for help due to local rebellions
1911 13th November - Augusto César de Vasconcelos Correia becomes Prime Minister (1911-1912)
1911 Foundation of the Monarchist Movement
1911 Monarchist Movement take physical possession of Vinhas and Salvaterra towns
1911 December - Census shows population of Portugal to be 5.950.056
1912 28th January - Rural workers strike in Évora and unrest spreads to Lisbon
1912 31st January - Military forces raid Union Offices and arrest leaders and deport them to the colonies
1912 May - Strike of Public Transport that lasts for 26 days
1912 Workers in Évora are forced back to work by the army
1912 16th June - Duarte Leite Pereira da Silva becomes Prime Minister (1912-1913)
1912 6th July - Rebel Monarchists army in the north of Portugal led by Captain Paiva Canciero fails to take Valença but succeeds at Chaves two days later
1912 8th July - Monarchist army flees after being defeated in Chaves
1912 10th July - Press censorship introduced and freedom of speech limited
1912 6th July - Monarchists army fails to take Valença but succeeds in Chaves two days later
1913 Birth of actor João Villaret (1913-1961)
1913 Birth of politician Álvaro Barreirinhas Cunhal (1913-2005) - prominent leader of the Communist Party
1913 Marriage whilst in exile of Dom Manuel II to Dona Augusta Victória
1913 9th January - Afonso Augusto da Costa becomes Prime Minister (1913-1914)
1913 24th January - Foundation of Portuguese Red Cross
1913 21st February - Suspicion falls on Britain and Germany on a secret accord between them on reshaping African boundaries at a cost to Portugal
1913 27th April - Revolutionary Republicans attempt "coup d'etat" against the Republican government
1913 28th April - Publication of numerous journals are suppressed
1913 10th June - Civil riots in Lisbon is quelled by republican police
1913 7th July - Revolutionary Republicans attack unsuccessfully the headquarters of the Marines
1913 10th July - Portugal terminates its political contact with the Vatican
1913 20th July - Monarchists attack various military bases in Lisbon
1913 9th December - Portuguese fears about the future of its colonies in Africa are realized due to speech made by German Minister of Foreign Affairs
1913 16th December - Ambassador Teixeira Gomes in London acquires Britain's agreement to delay the Anglo-German Treaty
1914 German forces attack and occupy parts of both Angola and Mozambique in Africa
1914 9th February - Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães becomes Prime Minister (1914)
1914 14th May - First major Congress of Worker Syndicates representatives held in Tomar
1914 28th July - The Anglo-German Treaty is signed but according to the British terms
1914 3rd August - World War I commences
1914 4th August - British Ambassador states that any attack on Portuguese territory will be an attack on the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty
1914 25th August - German troops attack frontier post in Mozambique
1914 11th September - Portuguese troops sent to both Angola and Mozambique
1914 18th September - Riots in Lisbon and Porto due to high prices of food
1914 1st October - Portuguese reinforcements arrive in Angola
1914 19th October - First incident in Angola between Germans and local troops
1914 20th October - Monarchists incidents in Mafra and Bragança
1914 30th October - "Massacre de Cuanger" - Portuguese camp attacked by Germans troops killing 22 people, mainly military
1914 1st November - Portuguese reinforcements arrive in Mozambique
1914 23rd November - Portugal agrees to participate actively in the World War
1914 12th December - Víctor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho becomes Prime Minister (1914-1915)
1914 12th December - Several engagements between Portuguese and German forces in Angola
1914 18th December - Battle of Naulila - German troops attack successfully in Angola and Portuguese troops forced to retreat to Humbe and further
1914 19th December - Natives rebel against Portuguese troops in southern Angola led by Mandume
1915 28th January - Joaquim Pimenta da Castro becomes Prime Minister (1915)
1915 3rd February - Portugal sends second wave of troops to Angola
1915 7th July - Portuguese forces occupy again Humbe in Angola
1915 9th July - German forces in South West Africa surrender to General Botha, Commander-in-Chief of the South African Army
1915 Local recruited natives into Portuguese Angola forces are engaged in battle with local Angolan rebels
1915 3rd March - Price of bread creates riots throughout Portugal
1915 4th March - Ruling Republican Party is disrupted in Parliament by the Democratic Party and the parliament buildings are closed down whilst General Pimenta da Costa forms a new Ministry. Clashes result in 200 killed and 1.000 injured.
1915 29th May - Teófilo Braga is nominated as interim President
1915 22nd April - Lisbon Town Hall top officials arrested by workers - this unofficial act by the public is repeated at some other Town Halls
1915 15th May - The Democrats seize temporary power led by João Pinheiro Chagas
1915 7th July - Portuguese forces occupy Humbe again
1915 6th August - Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães becomes President (1915-1917)
1915 15th August - Portuguese forces reoccupy the Fort at Cuamto in southern Angola
1915 18th August - Battle of Mongua - Portuguese forces defeat native uprising at Mongua in Angola
1915 4th September - The village of rebel native leader Mandume is occupied
1915 7th November - Second wave of Portuguese troops arrive in Mozambique

Constitutional Junta (1915)

1915 14th May - Junta consisting of José Norton de Matos, António Maria da Silva, José Freitas Ribeiro, Alfredo de Sá Cardoso and Álvaro de Castro  (1915)
1915 17th May - José Ribeiro de Castro becomes Prime Minister (1915)
1915 29th November - Afonso Augusto da Costa becomes Prime Minister (1915-1916)
1916 Troop re-enforcements are sent to Mozambique
1916 17th February - Britain requests Portugal to commandeer all foreign boats in Portuguese harbours
1916 24th February - Portugal seizes 36 German vessels at anchor in their ports
1916 6th March - Germany officially declares war on Portugal
1916 9th March - Portugal enters World War I in support of British and French
1916 16th March - António José de Almeida becomes Prime Minister (1916-1917)
1916 28th March - Trade Unions demonstrate against participation in the war
1916 27th May - Battle of Namaca - Portuguese forces suffer heavy losses when engaged by German forces in northern Mozambique
1916 15th June - England officially requests Portugal to participate actively in the War - accepted by Portugal on 7th August
1916 July - Third wave of Portuguese troops arrive in Mozambique
1916 7th August - Portugal agrees to participate in the War as requested by England in June
1916 4th October - Battle of Maúta - Portuguese forces are attacked and retreat from German forces in northern Mozambique
1916 22nd October - Battle of Ribeira de Nevala - Portuguese forces attack German forces and this time the Germans are made to retreat
1916 8th November - Battle of Quivambo - Portuguese forces of Nevala are forced to retreat against attack from German forces
1916 22nd November - Battle of Água de Nevala - German forces with reinforcements defeat Portuguese forces with a bayonet charge
1916 1st December - Germans destroy outpost at Nagandi seriously weakening the defence of Mozambique
1916 13th December - Machado Santos fails in his attempted revolution in Tomar
1917 Diamonds are found in Angola and exploration begins by South Africa
1917 30th January - Portuguese troops sail to France and participate in the front line on 4th April
1917 April - Shortage of ffod cuses strikes and general unrest
1917 25th April - Afonso Augusto da Costa becomes Prime Minister (1917)
1917 28th April - Sidónio Bernardino da Silva Pais becomes President (1917-1918)
1917 13th May - First apparition sighting of three children in Fátima
1917 19th May - Riots occur in Lisbon and Porto due to rationing of food and its high cost - several people are killed in the riots
1917 30th May - Portuguese troops enter in active service in the frontline in France - active engagement on the 4th June
1917 12th July - Civil riots involving workers from the construction industry
1917 28th November - Battle of Negomano - German forces seriously defeat Portuguese forces in Mozambique taking 550 prisoners
1917 5th December - Sidónio da Pais leads "coup d'etat" and takes dictatorial control of Portugal - he dismisses the President and arrests Augusto da Costa
1917 3rd December - Battle of Serra Mecula - Portuguese troops led by Captain Francisco Pedro Curado resist for three days German attacks
1917 8th December - Sidónio Bernardino da Silva Pais becomes Prime Minister (1917)
1917 9th December - Parliament is dissolved
1917 12th December - President Bernardo Machado resigns

Military Administration (1917)

1917 Conflict between Republicans and supporters of the Monarchy
1918 Influenza pandemic registers more than 60.000 deaths
1918 6th January - Naval officers attempt a counter-revolution
1918 9th April - Portuguese troops in Flanders suffer heavy casulties from German attack
1918 28th April - Elections for President with Sodónio Pais as only candidate
1918 1st July - Battle of Nhamacurra - German troops destroy the main deposit of sugar in central Mozambique
1918 8th September - Food rationing introduced in Portugal
1918 12th October - Several anti-government bombs which causes  a "state of emergency" to be declared
1918 14th October - Mine-sweeper sinks first German submarine
1918 16th October - Street disturbances in Lisbon causes several deaths
1918 11th November - End of World War I
1918 12th November - General Lettow-Vorbeck surrenders his arms in Mozambique in recognition of the Armistice
1918 12th November - General Strike mounted by workers
1918 5th December - A failed attempt to assinate Sidónio Pais
1918 14th December - Assassination of President Sidónio Pais

Republican Administration (1918-1926)

1918 14th December - João do Canto e Castro Silva Antunes Júnior becomes Provisional President and Prime Minister (1918-1919)
1918 23rd December - João Tamagnini de Sousa Barbosa becomes Prime Minister (1918-1919)
1918 Agriculture workers revolt in the Alentejo
1918 3rd January - Troops in Porto display their support for "Sidónism"
1918 12th January - Revolutionary Republican street support in Santarém creates street conflict with soldiers
1918 9th April - Battle of La Leys - Portuguese forces suffer heavy casualties in battle
1918 18th September - General Lethow-Voerbeck returns to Germany with his troops from Mozambique - without having been defeated once in battle during four years of fighting against Portugal
1918 12th October - Rallies in the countryside against the government
1918 16th October - Riots in Lisbon kill several people
1918 11th November - Germany accepts Armistice and peace is declared
1918 12th October - Rallies in the countryside against the government
1918 14th October - Courageous action by 1st-Leutenante Carvalho Araújo saves 206 people during an attack by a German submarine on a civil passenger boat
1918 12th November - General Strike throughout Portugal
1918 23rd November - Portuguese troops return from France and Belgium
1918 14th December - Second and successful attempt to assassinate Sidónio Pais
1918 16th December - Canto e Castro is nominated as interim President
1919 Birth of poet Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen (1919-2004)
1919 3rd January - Military Junta in Porto assumes control of Portugal
1919 12th January - Republican rally in Santarém is opposed by military forces
1919 19th January - Most large towns in the north openly support the Monarchist Movement including Porto and declare support for a new Party named "Monarquia do Norte"
1919 27th January - José Carlos de Mascarenhas Relvas becomes Prime Minister (1919)
1919 13th February - Republican movement retake possession of all rebel towns including Porto
1919 20th January - Republican demonstrations in Lisbon against the "Monarquia do Norte"
1919 13th February - Government troops enter Porto and disband the Monarchist Movement
1919 30th March - Domingos Leite Pereira becomes Prime Minister (1919)
1919 May - Strikes in many areas of commerce and services
1919 3rd June - Strike by railway workers that lasts two months
1919 17th June - General Strike - bombs are exploded
1919 20th June - First edition of "Avante" - the Communist Party paper
1919 30th June - Alfredo Ernesto de Sá Cardoso becomes Prime Minister (1919-1920)
1919 14th July - Portuguese troops participate in the victory march in Paris
1919 15th August - More bombs explode in Lisbon
1919 5th October - António José de Almeida becomes President (1919-1923)
1920 Birth of singer Amália Rodrigues (1920-1999)
1920 21st January - Domingos Leite Pereira becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 21st February - More bombs explode in Lisbon
1920 8th March - António Maria Baptista becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 17th March - Strikes with protesters firing at police
1920 19th March - English fleet moored in Estuary Tejo stage a live fire action to dissuade rioters from making an extreme left-wing revolution
1920 12th April - More bombs explode in Lisbon
1920 26th June - José Ramos Preto becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 26th June - António Maria da Silva becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 July - Civil unrest throughout Portugal
1920 19th July - António Joaquim Granjo becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 September - Civil unrest continues throughout Portugal
1920 November - Government falls again due to political chaos
1920 20th November - Álvaro Xavier de Castro becomes Prime Minister (1920)
1920 30th November - Liberato Damião Robeiro Pinto becomes Prime Minister (1920-1921)
1921 António Salazar is elected to Parliament but after two months he resigns
1921 March - The Portuguese Communist Party is founded
1921 2nd March - Bernadino Luís Machado Guimarães becomes Prime Minister (1921)
1921 22nd March - Successful first flight to Funchal in Madeira from Lisbon
1921 21st May - Captain Pires Monteiro attempts a military "coup d'etat"
1921 23rd May - Tomé José de Barros Queirós becomes Prime Minister (1921)
1921 July - Civil unrest throughout Portugal
1921 July - Civil unrest again in Lisbon
1921 10th July - Oliveira Salazar is elected to his first political post as a Catholic Deputy for the town of Guimarães
1921 30th August - António Joaquim Granjó becomes Prime Minister (1921)
1921 30th September - Colonel Manuel Maria Coelho attempts a military "coup d'etat"
1921 19th October - Radical sailors of the Democratic Party assassinate leaders of Republican Party - those that died include Prime Minister António Granjó, Machado Santos and Carlos de Maia.
1921 19th October - António Manuel Maria Coelho becomes Prime Minister (1921)
1921 19th October - Machado Santos, politician and founder of the Portuguese Republic assassinated by military rulers
1921 5th November - Carlos Maia Pinto becomes Prime Minister (1921)
1921 9th November - First major rail accident with many killed and injured
1921 16th December - Francisco Pinto da Cunha Leal becomes Prime Minister (1921-1922)
1922 Birth of author José Saramago (1922-) - awarded Nobel Prize for Literature in 1998
1922 Birth of art critic José-Augusto França (1922-)
1922 7th February - António Maria da Silva becomes Prime Minister (1922-1923)
1922 30th March - Successful flight coast to coast over the Atlantic by Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral
1922 17th Abril - Pact of Paris signed between Monarchists, Liberals and others recognising Dom Manuel II and his son Dom Duarte as rightful inheritor of the crown of Portugal
1922 29th May - Riots in Macau causing 32 deaths and hundreds injured
1922 20th June - Ex-Prime Minister Liberato Ribeiro Pinto and others are deported to the Azores
1922 5th August - Riots due to the high price of bread
1922 2nd September - Bombs explode in Porto
1922 8th September - Right-wing Sérgio Príncipe is assassinated
1923 Birth of painter and writer Mário Cesariny de Vasconcelos (1923-)
1923 February - Riots and bombs continue to explode in Lisbon
1923 17th March - Inauguration of first Nationalist Party Congress
1923 9th June - Inauguration of first Radical Party Congress
1923 16th August - Riots again when bread increases by 50% in price
1923 6th October - Manuel Teixeira Gomes becomes President (1923-1925)
1923 10th November - Inauguration of first Communist Party Congress
1923 15th November - António Ginestal Machado becomes Prime Minister (1923)
1923 10th December - Captain João Manuel de Carvalho - attempts a military "coup d'état"
1923 18th December - Álvaro Xavier de Castro becomes Prime Minister (1923-1924)
1924 Birth of politician Mário Soares (1924-)
1924 Birth of poet and surrealist Alexandre O'Neal (1924-1986)
1924 Birth of theatre and film actress Carmen Dolores
1924 22nd February - Riots commence again
1924 2nd April - Brito Pais and Sarmento Beiras leave to fly to Macau
1924 30th May - Revolt by officers of the Air Force
1924 20th June - Brito Pais and Sarmento Beiras arrive in Macau
1924 7th July - Alfredo Rodrigues Gaspar becomes Prime Minister (1924)
1924 14th July - Violent conflict between the Military and Police against the National Guard in Lisbon
1924 11th August - Left-wing failed attempt  "coup d'état"
1924 28th August - Another Left-wing failed attempt to create a "coup d'état"
1924 12th September - Radical and communists attempt to occupy public offices
1924 14th October - Riots in the north of Portugal
1924 15th November - Sacadura Cabral officially presumed lost at sea
1924 22nd November - José Domingos dos Santos becomes Prime Minister (1924-1925)
1925 Birth of guitarist Carlos Paredes (1925-2004)
1925 Proposal made by left-wing parties to handover all land to farm workers - this was not accepted
1925 2nd January - Portugal officially recognises the Soviet State of Russia
1925 15th February - Vitorino Máximo de Carvalho Guimarães becomes Prime Minister (1925)
1925 5th March - Three officers with Monarchist sympathies attempt to occupy the General Army Headquarters in Lisbon
1925 18th April - General Sinel de Cordes leads a pro-Conservative military attempt to an unsuccessful "coup d'état"
1925 3rd June - Attempted General Strike fails
1925 17th June - Approval is given to form the Bank of "Angola & Metrópole" to Alves dos Reis
1925 19th June - Another attempted military "coup d'etat" by Commander Mendes Cabeçadas with moderate Republican military sympathisers
1925 1st July - António Maria da Silva becomes Prime Minister (1925)
1925 1st August - Domingos Leite Pereira becomes Prime Minister (1925)
1925 23rd November - Alves dos Reis as a forger is exposed - his counterfeit money plan was so successful that he almost became richer than the Bank of Portugal - as a result he was in part responsible for the introduction of the Third Republic (1898-1955)
1925 6th December - Alves dos Reis is arrested
1925 11th December - Bernardinho Luís Machado Guimarães becomes President (1925-1926)
1925 18th December - António Maria da Silva becomes Prime Minister (1925-1926)
1926 Workers make a peaceful march from Braga to Lisbon to demand better conditions
1926 February - Student riots in Coimbra
1926 1st February - Radical Republican sympathisers in the Regiment of Artillery in Vendas Novas revolt and occupy the Forte de Almada and start firing at Lisbon
1926 28th May - General Gomes de Costa starts a military coup in Braga - he surrenders the next day believing it has failed
1926 29th May - Portuguese Communist Party interrupts its 2nd Congress
1926 29th May - The Trade Unions declare their neutrality towards the coup
1926 30th May - President Bernardino Machado resigns
1926 30th May - The military coup attempt is continued throughout Portugal and the Government falls
1926 28th May - Catholic army officers organized from Braga stage a successful "coup d'état" - they proceed to eradicate all Republican sympathisers within their ranks
1926 May 30th - The military coup attempt is continued throughout Portugal and the Government falls
-- --
3rd Period Fourth Dynasty (17th Century to 20th Century)
4rd Period Second Republic (20th Century)

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Prime Ministers
The above was compiled by Michael Tannock from published information in the Portuguese language. While every care was taken in obtaining the above facts some conflicting dates, information and spelling were encountered. In such cases, our own discretion was used in choosing which facts to publish.