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8th Period - Second Dynasty of Portugal - House of Avis
(14th Century to 16th Century)

14th C. --
1385 Battle of Valverde - Nuno Álvares Pereira fight Castile army in Spanish territory
1385 Battle of Aljubarrota - Dom João (I) as Master of Avis with his general Nuno Álvares Pereira heavily defeats Castile army
1385 Birth of historian Fernão Lopes (1385? - 1460?)
1385 6th April - João I acclaimed as the King in Coimbra (1385-1433) - (First of House of Avis) - Spain does not accept this claim of the Portuguese throne
1386 Dona Leonor Teles wife of Fernando I dies in exile in Valladolid in Castile
1386 17th May - Treaty of Windsor - Peace Pact made between Dom João I and King Richard II of England
1387 February - Treaty of Babe - Marriage in Porto of Dom João I to Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt (son of Edward III)
1388 Marriage of Don Afonso V of Spain with Catherina, the daughter of Duke of Lancaster
1388 Peace is re-established between Portugal and Castile
1388 Construction commenced on Monastery of Saint Maria de Vitória at Batalha
1389 February - Dom João invades Castile and occupies Tui
1389 Peace Treaty of Trancoso - signed between Portugal and Castile for a period of ten years
1390 Don Juan of Castile declares to his court that he is still the King of Portugal - he dies on 9th October of the same year
1390 Construction commenced on Guarda cathedral
1391 31st October - Birth of Dom Duarte (1391-1438)
1393 Due to hostility between Portugal and Castile a new Peace Treaty was agreed between them extending the previous Period of Peace to fifteen years
1394 4th February - Birth of Dom Henrique in Porto later to be know as "Henry the Navigator" (1394-1460)
1396 Portugal breaks Peace Agreement by its army taking Badajoz
1397 Castile army enters Viseu and set fire to its buildings
1396 Don Dinis of Castile acclaims himself as King of Portugal
1396 Portuguese army takes Badajoz and invades Galicia and then captures the towns of Salvalterra and Tui
1398 Don Dinis of Castile invades Portugal but has to turn back in the face of opposition shown by Portuguese army led by Nuno Álvares Pereira
15th C. --
1401 Marriage of João's illegitimate son (later to be granted the title of Duque of Bragança) with Beatriz daughter of Nuno Álvares Pereira
1401 Peace is restored between Portugal and Castile for ten years with a pardon granted to Portuguese that sided with Castile - however, their property is then confiscated
1402 As hostility had again occurred between Portugal and Seville a new Peace Treaty was agreed between Portugal and Castile for a ten year period
1403 A further period of peace is established between Portugal and Castile and Portugal hands back Badajoz and Tui, Castile hands back Bragança and Miranda
1403 29th September - Birth of Dom Fernando in Santarém, 2nd Duque de Bragança (1403-1478), Governor of Ceuta in North Africa
1405 Dona Beatriz and bastard daughter of João I marries the English Earl of Arundel
1411 31st October - Peace Treaty of Segovia - Agreement between Spain and Portugal and all property previously confiscated returned to the nobles
1415 18th July - Queen Dona Filipa de Lancaster died in Odivelas
1415 25th July - Portuguese Armada sail from Lisbon for Africa with the Dom João I and his sons, Dom Duarte, Dom Pedro, Dom Henrique and Dom Afonso, plus the Nuno Álvares Pereira
1415 21st August - Capture of town of Ceuta in Morocco by the Portuguese led by Dom Henrique (Duque de Viseu) - the Mosque is turned into a Christian temple
1418 Dom Henrique appointed Governor of the Algarve
1418 The Portuguese controlled town of Ceuta in Africa is besieged by Moor army (1418-1419)
1418 Discovery of island of Porto Santo (Madeira Islands)
1419 Landing on Island of Madeira by João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira
1419 Treatise "Leal Conselheiro" issued by King Duarte on court behaviour
1420 Dom Henrique appointed Governor of the Order of Christ
1420 The first attempt to create a settlement on the Island of Madeira
1421 October - Castile finally recognises Dom João I as King of Portugal
1421 The creation of the Diocese of Ceuta in Africa
1422 João I degrees that the Christian calendar is officially adopted
1424 Infante Dom João marries his niece Dona Isabel Pereira
1424 Dom Fernando de Castro leads an expedition to the Canary Islands with support from the Pope
1427 Diogo da Silves first sights the Azores
1428 Marriage of Dom Duarte to Dona Leonor, daughter of Don Fernando I of Aragon
1430 Birth of Dom Fernando, 3rd Duque de Bragança (1430-1483), executed by the King for treason (He married Dona Isabel the sister of Dom Manuel I)
1431 1st April - Nuno Álvares Pereira dies in Lisbon
1431 October - Peace Treaty of Medina del Campo - Castile and Portugal enter into a real period of friendly relationship
1432 15th January - Birth of Afonso (V) in Sintra (1432-1481)
1432 Peace Treaty agreed between Portugal and Castile
1432 Gonçalves Velho Cabral arrives in Santa Maria, Azores
1433 14th August - Duarte (1433 - 1438)
1434 Lei Mental - Law issued to ensure the continuation of the House of Avis in that any issue of the royal family may ascend to the throne - this law also governed the inheritance rights of the assets of the throne
1434 Gil Eanes sails around Cape Bojador (Western Sahara) - an important event to the further exploration of Africa
1436 Portugal applies to Pope Eugene IV for his favourable decision to possess the Canary Islands - the Pope avoids a definite decision
1436 "Cortes" held in Évora demanded a military expedition to expand Portuguese territory in Africa
1437 Infante Dom Fernando (successor to the Portuguese throne), taken prisoner in the failed capture of Tangiers by invading Portuguese army
1438 9th September - Afonso V (1438 - 1481) - his mother Dona Leonor of Aragon appointed Regent
1438 "Cortes" of Leiria fail in their attempt to agree in the method of recovering the release of Infante Dom Fernando
1439 "Cortes" of Lisbon appoint Dom Pedro as Regent and Dona Leonor is exiled to Castile
1439 Dom Henrique orders the Azores Islands be populated
1440 Castile encourage Dona Leonor to reinstate herslf as Queen of Portugal - this plot fails and Dona Leonor is forced to flee to Castile via Crato
1440 Dom Fernando de Castro leads a further expedition to the Canary Islands
1441 Dona Leonor abandons Portugal for Castile
1441 "Cortes" are held in Torres Vedras
1441 Construction of first Slave Market building in Europe in Lagos, Algarve
1442 Dom Afonso, the Conde of Barcelos is awarded the title of Duque de Bragança
1442 Bartolomeu Dias discovers the Cape Verde Islands
1443 5th July - Infante Dom Fernando dies in captivity in Fez in Africa - his remains returned to be buried in Portugal in 1471
1445 21st May - Dona Joana, sister of Dom Afonso V, marries Henrique IV of Castile
1445 Dona Leonor and the Regent of Afonso V dies in Toledo in Spain
1445 Dom Afonso (V) and his half-brother Dom Pedro, the Duque de Bragança, clash for the first time
1445 Álvaro Fernandes sails past Cape Verde
1445 First "factory" established in West Africa at Argium
1446 Dom Afonso V - acclaimed as the King in Lisbon
1446 The Infante Dom Henrique grants the Island of Porto Santo in Madeira to Bartolomeu Perestrelo
1447 Marriage of Dom Afonso V with Dona Isabel (his cousin and daughter of Dom Pedro of Coimbra)
1448 Castle built at Arguim in Africa
1449 20th may - Battle of Alfarrobeira - war between Dom Afonso V supported by the Duke of Bragança, and Dom Pedro (the King's uncle-in-law and the also the Duque of Coimbra - the later being killed during this battle)
1449 Battle of Touro (Nancy)
1452 18th June - "Dum Diversos" - The Pope published a Bull allowing Portugal to permanantly enslave non-Christians
1452 Discovery by Diogo de Teive of the Islands of Flores and Corvo (Azores)
1452 Dona Leonor marries the German Emperor Frederico III
1455 Dona Joana marries Don Henrique IV of Castile
1455 3rd March - Birth of João (II) in Lisbon (1455-1495)
1456 Discovery by Diogo Gomes of Cape Verde Islands
1456 Dom Afonso V and Don Henrique IV meet to agree a Peace Treaty
1458 24th August - Conquest of Alcácer Sequer by Dom Afonso V in North Africa in which Dom Henrique IV took an active part - a combined force of 25.000 men
1460 13th November - Death of Dom Henrique (Henry the Navigator) in Sagres
1460 Discovery of Sierra Leone and Guinea
1460 Birth of scientist Duarte Pacheco Pereira (1460-1533)
1461 Afonso V makes a pact with Christian I of Denmark to explore the Artic Ocean
1461 Birth of Afonso de Albuquerque (1461?-1515)
1462 Settlement created on Santiago Island (Cape Verde Islands)
1463 Dom Afonso V organises military attempts to capture Tangiers without success (1463-1464)
1465 Birth of dramatist Gil Vicente (1470?-1536?)
1466 First slaves taken to Madeira to work in sugar plantations
1468 Flemish settler Josse van Huertere appointed Master of Island of Faial, Azores
1468 Creation of Diocese of Tangiers
1468 Birth of explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral (1468?-1520?)
1468 Birth of explorer Vasco da Gama (1468?-1524)
1469 Kingdoms of Castile and Aragón are united by marriage of Dona Isabel and Dom Fernando - officially declared in 1479
1469 31st of May - Birth of Manuel (I) in Alcochete (1469-1521)
1470 Birth of poet Gil Vicente (1470-1536)
1470 Discovery of Island of São Tomé
1470 Birth of explorer Pêro de Covilhã (1470?-1527?)
1471 22nd January - Marriage of João (II) to his cousin Dona Leonor and daughter of the Duque de Viseu
1471 18th August - Dom João once more sails with his troops to North Africa and capture by Portuguese of Fort of Arzila and also a short occupation of Tangier in North Africa
1472 "Cortes of Coimbra" Important reforms in regard to defence of the realm and justice implemented
1473 Madeira Island of "Desertas" and "Porto Santo" given to the Duque de Viseu and Beja
1474 18th May- Birth of Dom Afonso to Dom João II
1474 Upon the death of Don Henrique IV of Castile, Dom Afonso V of Portugal suggest that he defends the claim of his niece to the Castile throne
1474 Anti-Aragonese party in Castile urge Dom Afonso V to marry Dona Joanna of Castile
1475 Birth of painter Grão Vasco (1475-1515)
1475 29 May - Dom Afonso travels to Plasência to marry his niece Dona Joana (he at 43 and she at 13), and made claim to the Kingdom of Castile
1475 20 June - Outbreak of hostilities between Portugal and Castile (1475-1480) - due to Dom Afonso V designs on the Castile throne
1475 23rd September - Treaty signed between Dom Afonso V and Luis XI of France recognising the former as the inheritor of the throne of Castile
1476 2nd March - Battle of Toro - This battle concerning the succession of the throne of Castile resulted in the army of Dom Afonso V being severely defeated by Castile army
1476 Dom Afonso V travels to France to unsuccessfully seek support of his desire to join the kingdoms of Portugal and Castile into one
1477 Dom Afonso V abdicated in favour of his son but reinstated himself as King and retracted his abdication
1477 16th April - Dom Afonso V instructs his son Infante Dom João to commence war against Castile
1477 Christopher Columbus lived in Lisbon and unsuccessfully petitioned the Crown to fund his intended travel of exploration
1478 Spanish Inquisition commences and Jews are forced to accept the Christian faith so they start fleeing to Portugal
1479 Christopher Columbus married Filipa Perestrello e Moniz and lived on Porto Santo Island, Madeira
1479 February - the army of Dom Afonso V defeated in battle by Castile army
1479 4th September - Treaty of Alcáçovas - peace declaration between Dom Afonso V and Castile - the Canary islands are ceded to Castile
1479 Birth of Dom Jaime, 4th Duque de Bragança (1479-1532), vice-King of India
1480 Treaty of Toledo - Ratification of Treaty of Alcáçovas and the division of world territories between Portugal and Spain - also an accord to combine their forces to rid the Peninsular of Moorish occupation
1480 Birth of explorer Fernão de Magalhães (1480?-1521)
1480 Laws forbidding Jews to live outside designated areas introduced (Jeweries), in Castille - Jews in 1492 were then expelled from the country
1480 Establishment of first printing press in Leiria
1481 28th August - João II (1481 - 1495)
1481 João II successfully puts down attempted revolt within his court
1481 João II calls a "Corte" in Évora and introduces new laws to curb the powers of the ruling aristocracy and leading families such as the Duque de Bragança
1481 João II terminated system of "Cortes"
1482 Peace agreement signed between Castile and Portugal
1483 21st June - João II publicly executes Dom Fernando, 3rd Duke of Bragança for treason in Évora and the Crown confiscates his possessions - the Marquês de Montemor and the Conde de Faro escape capture
1484 28th August - João II personally executes for treason Dom Diogo, Duke of Viseu and Beja and the Crown confiscated his possessions - the Bishop of Évora is also beheaded
1484 Diogo Cão reaches mouth of River Congo in Africa
1484 Explorer João Afonso of Aveiro reaches Benin in Africa
1484 Explorer Christopher Columbus fails to receive backing form Dom João II for his plans of exploration so moves onto Castile
1485 Rejection by João II of petition by Christopher Columbus to voyage to India
1485 Dom João II adds to his royal titles the country of Guinea
1485 Construction begins on Hospital Spa of Caldas da Rainha
1485 Dom João II send a delegation to the Pope to protest his devotion to Rome
1485 The Duque of Viseu is stabbed to death
1486 Creation of an state organisation to control the slave trade
1486 Pope Innocent VIII aids Portuguese pretensions to possess Morocco by issuing a Papal Bull in support of this idea
1486 The town of Azamor occupied by Portuguese forces and the Kingdom of Benin is taken by João Afonso de Aveiro
1487 Failed Portuguese military expedition to Arafé in Morocco
1488 Bartolomeu Dias sails around the Cape of Good Hope
1488 Afonso de Paiva and Pêro da Covilhã search for the mythical "Prester John" in Africa
1489 Treaty of Windsor between Portugal and England renewed
1489 Fort built at Larache in Africa but quickly falls to the Moors
1489 Portuguese establish a Fort near Arzila in Morocco, Africa
1490 System of "Cortes" re-established and held in Évora
1490 Infante Dom Afonso contracted to marry Dona Isabel of Castile in Évora
1490 Some 600 leading Spanish Jew families paid for the right to live in Portugal - later to be followed by 60.000 under more lenient conditions
1491 Infante Dom João dies after falling from his horse, leaving the succession to the throne in question - Dom Manuel, Duque de Beja and Master of the Order of Christ and also brother of Queen Leonor, is nest in line for the throne
1491 Pêro de Barcelos and João Fernandes Lavrador land in North America
1491 Martins Lopes travels overland to Asia
1491 Portugal establishes the first Catholic church in the Congo
1492 Christopher Columbus arrives in Northern America voyage financed by Castile
1492 Pêro de Barcelos and João Fernandes Lavrador discover Lavrador
1492 Jews expelled from Castile and Aragón take refuge in Portugal
1493 The Pope Alexander VI issues two Bulls establishing the division of the world between Christians and non-Christians
1493 Christopher Columbus visits Azores and then travels via Lisbon onto Castile seeking further support
1494 João II revokes the act of "Lei de Seismarias (1375)"
1494 Pêro da Covilhã reaches Ethiopia
1494 Treaty of Tordesillas - division boundary of known world revised by Portugal and Castile
1495 25th October - Manuel I (1495 - 1521)
1495 Beginning of period known as "Discoveries" in discovering the more of the world
1495 Portuguese make a enclave in Greenland
1496 Marriage contracted between Dom Manuel I with Dona Isabel of Castile - widow of Don Afonso
1496 Birth of João de Barros (1496?-1570)
1496 Dom Manuel I forces Jews to leave Portugal unless they convert to Christianity - this action was made as a condition of the marriage of Dona Isabel of Castile to Dom Manuel I
1497 October - Marriage of Dom Manuel I to Dona Isabel, widow of Don Alfonso of Castile
1497 Vasco da Gama sails for India
1497 A new law is introduced forbidding both Jews and Muslims from public worship of their own faiths
1498 Death of Queen Dona Isabel in Aragon and - wife of Dom Manuel I, whilst giving birth to her son Miguel de Paz - Dom Manuel leaves his son in Aragon and returns to Portugal
1498 Christopher Columbus embarks on his third journey to America
1498 28th March - Dom Manuel I travels to Castile to further his claim for the throne of Castile
1498 20th May - Vasco da Gama reaches Calcutta, India
1498 Dom Manuel I grants the land at Belém to the Order of São Jerómino to build their monastery
1498 Laws providing some protection to "new-Christians" introduced
1498 Queen Dona Leonor creates the charity "Misericórdia de Lisboa"
1498 Construction begins on the Aqueduct in Elvas but only completed in 1622
1499 Portuguese explorers Gaspar and Miguel Corte Real reach Newfoundland, Labrador and Nova Scotia (1499-1502)
1499 12th May - The clauses of the Treaty of Windsor are adjusted and agreed by Dom Manuel I and King Henry VII of England
1499 Fernão de Melo is granted all rights for the Island of São Tomé
1499 7th January - Triumphant return of vessels of Vasco da Gama's expedition from his voyage to the east - his return is delayed in the Azores due to the death of his brother
16th C. --
1500 The infant son of Dom Manuel I, Dom Miguel de Paz, dies in Aragon - the plans to join Portugal and Castile together under one crown is placed on hold
1500 Manuel I orders forced conversion by Jews in Portugal to the Christian faith
1500 Portuguese forces capture Azamor and Safim in Morocco
1500 The Island of Madagascar is encountered
1500 10th March - Pedro Álvares Cabral sails for Brazil on Easter Day
1500 22nd March - Pedro Álvares Cabral sights the coast of Brazil on Easter Day - firstly named "Terra de Vera Cruz", then changed to "Terrra de Santa Cruz", and changed again to "Terra do Brazil"
1500 20th May - Marriage agreement between Dom Manuel I and Infanta Dona Maria of Castile, the fourth daughter of Don Ferdinand and Dona Isabella of Castile
1500 The University of Coimbra is founded
1501 Afonso Gonçalves with Américo Vespúcio sail to explore the coast of Brazil
1501 Portuguese settlement of fishermen is establish in Newfoundland
1501 Construction begins on Palace at Vila Viçosa
1501 Construction begins on Monastery of Jerónimos in Belém
1501 Birth of João (III) in Lisbon (1503-1557)
1502 João de Nova discovers Ascension Islands, Saint Helena Island, and Tristan da Cunha Island
1502 Birth of Damião de Goís (1502-1558)
1502 Birth of mathematician Pedro Nunes (1502-1578)
1503 The islands of Seychelles in encountered
1503 Construction commences in Sintra on the Mosteiro de Nossa Senhora da Pena
1504 Birth of Dom Teodósio, 5th Duque de Bragança (1504-1563)
1504 Duarte Pacheco Pereira captures Calcutta in India
1505 Dom Manuel I names Dom Francisco de Almeida as the first vice-King of India - Dom Francisco then develops the profitable eastern spice trade
1505 Construction by Portugal of a castle at Agadir in Morroco
1505 Birth of scientist Garcia de Orta (1505-1568)
1505 A strong earthquake is registered in the Lisbon area
1506 Pope Julio II gifts the award of "Golden Rose" to Dom Manuel I
1506 Manuel I places royal protection on "new-Christians" (converted Jews) as a wave of anti-Judaism encouraged by Dominican priests sweeps Lisbon and killing 4.000 in three days
1506 João de Nova discovers Tristan da Cunha Island
1507 Conquest of Ormuz on the coast of Iran
1507 Death of Dom Lourenço de Almeida in naval battle off Chaul in India by Egyptian fleet
1508 Construction by Portugal of a castle at Mogador in Morocco
1508 Conquest of Safim
1508 Arzila is besieged by Moors
1508 The town of Funchal is established in Madeira
1509 Portuguese fleet under Dom Francisco de Almeida severely damages Egyptian fleet off the coast of India and captures Diu
1509 Afonso de Albuquerque is appointed as vice-King of India
1510 January - Afonso de Albuquerque fails to take Calicut so decides to take Goa and make it the capital of Portuguese influence
1511 25th July - Conquest of Malacca in Asia by Afonso de Albuquerque
1511 Goa retaken by Indian forces led by King Adil Khan
1511 Birth of explorer Fernão Mendes Pinto (1511?-1583)
1512 Birth of Dom Henrique in Lisbon (1512-1580)
1512 A strong earthquake is registered in the Lisbon area
1512 A Portuguese Factory is established at Calcutta
1513 Vasco Nuñes Balbão encounters Pacific Ocean
1513 João Dias de Solis commences his exploration of coast of Brazil
1513 Conquest of Azamor and Aden
1513 Trading post established at Canton in China
1514 Construction of Fort at Mazagão
1514 Pope Leo X gifts the award of "Golden Rose" to Dom Manuel I
1514 Portugal's first trade mission arrives in China led by Jorge Álvares
1515 Catholic missionaries enter Benin
1515 Loss of Fort of Mamora to Moors in Morocco
1515 Afonso de Albuquerque captures the Island of Ormuz (1515-1622) - he dies the same year
1515 Construction begins of Torre de Belém outside Lisbon
1516 Occupation of Timor
1516 21st June - A fleet carrying troops led by Cristavão Jacques is sent to Brazil to defend the territory against attacks from France
1516 Commencement of rule in Spain of Emperor Charles V (1515-1556)
1517 Death of Queen Dona Maria wife of Dom Manuel I
1518 Portuguese Fort built at Colombo (Siri Lanka/Ceylon)
1518 Marriage of Dom Manuel I to Dona Leonor (sister to Don Carlos I of Spain)
1519 Fernão de Magalhães (1480-1521), sets sail to make first circumnavigation of the world
1519 Dom Manuel I grants to Vasco da Gama the title of "Conde da Vidiqueira"
1520 Religious preacher Luther excommunicated by Pope
1520 Birth of Dom Teodósio, 5th Duke of Bragança (1520-1563)
1520 Fernão de Magalhães reaches into the Pacific Ocean - he dies on the 7th April 1521 at Cebu in the Philippines
1521 13th December - João III (1521 - 1557)
1521 Ferdinand Magellan reaches the Philippines
1522 January - France suggests that their Princess Carlota, the daughter of King Francis I, enter into a marriage contract with the Infante Dom João
1522 Dom João III signs a Peace Agreement with Don Carlos 1 (Emperor Carlos V) of Spain
1522 Dom João III negotiates with Spain an agreement that Dona Catarina daughter of Don Carlos I of Spain) enters into marriage with him and his sister, Dona Isabel, marries Don Carlos I
152 Fort is constructed at Ternate in the Malacca Islands
1524 13th April - Portugal and Spain agree on the division of the Malacca Islands
1524 Birth of traveller and poet Luís Vaz de Camões (1524-1580)
1524 Vasco da Gama is nominated as vice-King of India - he dies the same year in Cochin
1525 Pope Clement VII awards the "Golden Rose" to Dom João III
1525 Marriage of João III with Dona Catarina of Austria
1525 Death of Queen Dona Leonor
1525 Estevão Gomes in the service of Spain explores from Newfoundland to Cheapskate
1526 11th March - Marriage of Dona Isabel of Portugal with Don Carlos I of Spain
1526 Jorge de Menezes reaches New Guinea
1526 Dom João III sponsors 50 scholarships for student to study in Paris
1527 Birth of Felipe (I) in Valladolid (1527-1598)
1528 Purchase of Malacca's (Spice Islands), from Spain
1528 Birth of Frei Heitor Pinto in Covilhã (1528-1584)
1529 Treaty of Saragossa - Dom João enters into a new agreement with Don Carlos I of Spain in relation to the possession of the Malacca Islands
1530 Birth of Fernão Álvares (1530-1600?)
1530 20th November - Martim Afonso de Sousa is given powers to extend the occupied territory in Brazil - he arrives with his men in Brazil on the 3rd February 1531
1530 Marriage of Dona Leonor widow of Dom Manuel I to King Francis I of France
1531 A strong earthquake is registered throughout Portugal and part of Lisbon is destroyed
1531 Birth of Dom António in Lisbon, Piro do Crato (1531-1595)
1531 The Catholic's introduces the Inquisition into Portugal
1532 Jews and "New Christians" are forbidden to leave Portugal
1532 Settlement by Portuguese in Brazil at their first town named São Vicente - the cultivation of sugar is commenced
1533 7th April - Pope Clement VII grants pardons to Portuguese Jews at the request of Dom João III
1533 Inhabitants revolt in Porto Santo, Madeira
1534 Conquest of Baçaim in India
1534 Fort constructed at Diu in India
1534 Foundation of "Society of Jesus" by Ignacio de Loyola - Jesuits
1535 Diu and Baçaim are ceded to Portugal by the Sultan of Badur
1536 Death of dramatist Gil Vicente
1536 23rd May - Introduction of Portuguese Inquisition by order of Pope Paulo III
1534 Foundation of "Society of Jesus" by Ignacio de Loyola - Jesuits
1537 University is moved for the final time from Lisbon back to Coimbra
1538 Moslems and Hindus besiege Diu in India - Dom Garcia de Noronha as vice-King of India is sent with troops to lift the siege
1539 Fernão Mendes Pinto sails on his first voyage to discover the Far East
1540 17th April - The first Jesuit priests are installed in Portugal
1540 Earl of Essex sacks town of Faro in the Algarve and plunders the library of rare books from the Bishop's Palace
1541 The Inquisition commences its public "auto-de-fé" ceremonies against religious heretics and other suspects
1541 Portugal abandons Safim and Azamor
1542 Portugal gives up its conquered towns in northern Africa
1542 6th May - Portuguese missionaries including Francisco Xavier enter Goa
1542 Portuguese ships reach Japan - first recorded Europeans to reach Japan
1542 Construction of the Convento da Arrábida near Setúbal
1543 Portuguese forces retake Goa
1543 Marriage of Don Felipe (I) to Dona Maria his cousin and daughter of João III of Portugal
1543 Birth of Dom João, 6th Duke of Bragança (1520-1563), later married to Dona Catarina, granddaughter if King Manuel I and sister of Dom Henrique
1543 Francisco Zeimoto, António Peixoto and António da Mota, arrive in Japan and commence trading
1545 Dom João de Castro appointed Governor of India
1545 Dom Henrique appointed Cardinal
1545 25th September - Francisco Xavier arrives in Malacca
1546 August - Second besiegement of Diu in India by Sultan Mafamude but Portuguese troops arrive in November to relieve the well defended Fort
1547 Peace Treaty signed between the King of Fez in Africa and Dom João III
1547 The Pope issues a Bull authorising the Portuguese Inquisition to be modelled on the Spanish version
1548 Dom António qualifies from Coimbra University
1549 Portugal creates the garrison of Alcácer-Seguiar in Morocco
1548 Dom António qualifies from Coimbra University
1549 29th March - Tomé de Sousa arrives in Brazil as the first Governor General - he founds the capital Salvador da Baía
1549 Jesuit mission is established in in Japan by Francis Xavier
1550 Portugal losses control of Azila
1550 Portuguese traders commence trading with China in Macau
1551 Work begins on Fort de Bordez to defend Goa
1551 Pope Julio III grants the "Golden Rose" to Infante Dom João son of Dom João III
1552 Dom João III and Carlos I of Spain meet to organise their defence against attacks from French and Turkish pirates
1552 Marriage of Infante Dom João with Infanta Joana daughter of Carlos I of Spain
1553 Works begins on Forts Bacain in India
1553 Dom Duarte da Costa as the new Governor General of Brazil arrives with Jesuit missionaries
1554 Death of Infante Dom João the next in-line for the throne of Portugal
1554 20th January - Birth of Dom Sebastião in Lisbon - in a political move his mother Dona Joana moves back to Spain three months after the birth and never sees her son again
1554 25th January - Foundation of the Colégio de São Paulo in Brazil which caused the later creation of the city
1554 Marriage of Don Felipe (II) of Spain to Mary Tudor of England
1556 Don Felipe II becomes King of Spain (1556-1598) - and later King Felipe I of Portugal
1556 Don Carlos I (ex-King of Spain), fails in his attempt to influence the line of succession to the throne of Portugal
1557 16th June - Sebastião (1557 - 1578) - Dona Catarina of Austria assumes Regency for Dom Sebastião until 1562
1557 Chinese grant Portugal trading port of Macau to Portugal for protection against pirates
1558 Death of Dona Catarina in Yuste
1558 Conquest of São Sebastião in Mozambique
1559 Conquest of Damão and Bombay is ceded by China to Dom Constantino de Bragança, vice-King of India
1559 Paula Dias de Novais sails with missionaries to Angola
1559 Jesuit University established in Évora by Cardinal Dom Henrique
1560 Marriage of Don Felipe (II) to Isabel de Valois
1560 Paulo Dias de Novais creates the town of São Paulo de Luanda - the first European city south of the Equator
1560 15th March - Portuguese troops expel French from Baía de Guanabara in Brazil
1560 The Pope authorises the introduction of the Inquisition into Goa
1560 Marriage of Felipe (I) to Ana de Áustria
1560 Construction of the Convento dos Capuchos in Sintra
1561 First edition by Fernão Álvares Seco of the oldest know map of Portugal
1561 15th March - Assassination of Gonçalves da Silveira in Zimbaue, Africa
1561 As a result of English pirates harassing Portuguese vessels Portugal confiscates English owned property in Portugal - the property is re-instated when Dom Sebastião later needs assistance from England.
1562 After Dona Catarina of Austria abandons Regency of Sebastião and the Cardinal Dom Henrique is elected Regent until 1568
1562 Dom Henrique introduces the Council of State
1562 7th May - Battle of Mazagão - Portugal defends town of Mazagão against heavy attack by Moors led by Mohamed Almotavaquil
1564 Re-conquest of Fort at Pinhão de Belem on the north coast of Africa
1565 Spain occupies the Philippines
1566 French pirates sack Funchal killing many of its inhabitants
1566 22nd December - Cardinal Dom Henrique, Dom Sebastião, and the Spanish King meet at Mosteiro de Guadalupe in Spain for forming mutual defence policy and marriage contract between of Dom Sebastião and and a daughter of Dom Felipe I of Spain
1568 Sebastião comes of age and takes control of his Kingdom
1567 King of Achén besieges Malacca
1568 Dom Sebastião comes of age and is crowned King
1568 Birth of Teodósio, 7th Duque de Bragança (1568-1630)
1569 Nagasaki in Japan starts trading with Portuguese
1569 Portugal abandons Mazagão
1569 English traders start shipping slaves from West Africa coast
1569 Marriage of Felipe (II) with Margarida de Áustria
1569 28th February - Dom Sebastião and Felipe II of Spain meet to agree on repatriation of criminals between the two countries
1569 A fever epidemic sweeps Portugal and particularly in Lisbon
1570 Dom Sebastião issues orders that the freedom of Brazilian Indians should be respected
1570 Marriage of Don Felipe (I) to Ana of Austria
1570 French pirates again sack Funchal
1570 French fleet sink boats carrying Jesuit Priests to Brazil
1570 Luís de Camões returns from his travels to the Orient
1570 Goa in India is attacked by Indian army but they are repelled
1571 Law passed stating that only Portuguese vessels could carry items destined for any Portuguese colony
1571 Portuguese trading post established at Nagasaki
1571 Francisco Barreto leads an unsuccessful expedition of about 1000 men to explore the east coast to the north of Mozambique
1571 7th October - Battle of Lepanto - Turkish fleet is defeated by Spanish fleet commanded by Don João of Austria giving Spain control over the Mediterranean
1572 Publication of the classic "Os Lusíadas" by Luís de Camões
1572 13th September - Bad weather destroys French fleet at entrance to River Tagus in their attempt to threaten Portugal
1573 Dom Sebastião travels through the Alentejo and the Algarve
1574 Dom Sebastião travel for the first time to North Africa
1576 Dom Sebastião and Don Felipe II meet in Guadalupe to agree on joining their troops into one force against the Moors
1577 Dom Sebastião occupies Arzila in Morocco
1578 4th August - Battle of Alcácer-Quibir - Dom Sebastião and his army are defeated and the King disappears in the battle and is never again seen - about 8.000 killed and 15.000 taken prisoners
1578 Birth of Don Felipe in Madrid (II of Portugal, and III of Spain)
1578 27th August - Cardinal Dom Henrique (1578 - 1580)
1579 February - As there is no direct heir to the throne many nobles and leading Lisbon citizens show tacit approval for Portugal to be ruled by Spain after death of Dom Henrique
1579 Another fever sweeps Portugal and some 50.000 people die in Lisbon
1579 18th June - Frontier town of Elvas declares in favour of Don Felipe as new King of Portugal - Santarém inhabitants declare in favour of Dom António and they march on Lisbon
1580 "Cortes" of Almeirim meet unsuccessfully to choose a successor to the throne
1580 10th June - Death of Luís de Camões
1580 Dom António, Prior de Crato (1580) - Inherits the throne but is never crowned and is the last in the line of the House of Avis
-- --
7th Period First Dynasty of Portugal - Burgundy (12th Century to 14th Century)
9th Period Third Dynasty of Portugal - Habsburg (16th Century to 17th Century)

Return to Index of History Periods



The above was compiled by Michael Tannock from published information in the Portuguese language. While every care was taken in obtaining the above facts some conflicting dates, information and spelling were encountered. In such cases, our own discretion was used in choosing which facts to publish.