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9th Period - Third Dynasty of Portugal - House of Habsburg
(16th Century to 17th Century)


16th C. --
1580 18th June - Alentejo towns of Arronches, Campo Maior, Elvas, Olivença, and Juromenha, accepts claim of Spanish King Dom Felipe II  to the Portuguese throne
1580 27th June - Spanish army invades Portugal led by Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (Duke of Alba) - occupy Arraiolos, Évora and Montemor and Vila Viçosa
1580 27th July - Spanish forces occupy Setúbal and also district of Algarve
1580 Fortress of Saint Julian in Lisbon surrenders to Spanish naval forces
1580 19th July - Portuguese nobility split between supporting Dom António, Prior de Crato, and Don Felipe II the King of Castile as grandson of Dom Manuel I of Portugal. Dom António is provisionally acclaimed by remaining loyal forces in Santarém and Elvas as King of Portugal
1580 25th August - Battle of Alcântara - superior Spanish army led by Duke of Alba defeats the Portuguese forces of Dom António
1580 3rd September - Spanish forces occupy Porto
1580 22nd October - Dom António flees to Viana do Foz do Lima
1581 Don Felipe II of Spain declares Portugal joined under the reign of the Spanish crown which is agreed at the "Cortes" held in Tomar
1581 16th April - Felipe I (1581 - 1598) - First of the House of Habsburg and at the same time also the King Felipe II of Spain - (mother was daughter of Manuel I)
1581 10th May - Dom António, Prior de Crato, flees to England from Setúbal and then to France and later to Azores
1581 December - Dom Felipe I visits Lisbon for the first time
17th C. --
1581 23rd April - Don Diogo, son of Dom Felipe I is acknowledged by the "Cortes" of Tomar as the future successor to his father of the throne of Portugal
1581 25th July - Battle of Salga (Terceira Island) - The Azores refuse to recognise Dom Felipe I as their new King and Spanish army led by Don Pedro de Valdés are forced back to their ships by confusion caused on the beach by a suggestion made by the local priest, Father Pedro.
1581 Conde de Vimioso and supporter of "Prior do Crato" executed in Azores by order of Marquês de Santa Cruz as symbol of the Spanish success
1581 King invites Italian architect Filippo Terzi to rebuild Royal Palace
1582 24th July - Battle of Vila Nova do Campo - Smaller but better equipped Spanish fleet under the command of Marquês de Santa Cruz defeats a combined Portuguese and French fleet of the Island of São Miguel in the Azores - defeated Dom António retreats to the Island of Terceira
1582 The introduction of the Gregorian Calendar
1582 Dom António (Prior of Crato), sails to the Azores to organise rebellion against Dom Felipe I
1582 Construction of the Forteleza de São Filipe near Setúbal
1582 Portuguese request that Dom Felipe I appoints Dona Maria, his sister and married to Emperor Maximillian II, be appointed as vice-King. Instead Felipe I nominates Cardinal Granville as his representative
1583 "Cortes" are held in Lisbon
1583 The Islands of the Azores are occupied by Spanish troops led by Spanish force led by Marquês de Santa Cruz and the inhabitants quietly submit to rule of their new Spanish King, Felipe I of Portugal
1583 11th February - Dom Felipe I hands his position in Portugal over to his nephew Archduke Alberto of Habsburg and returns to his other capital Madrid
1583 Sir Francis Drake attacks Brazil
1585 Sir Francis Drake with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I of England captures ships in the Azores carrying cargo back to Spain and Portugal
1586 Portuguese fleet suffer defeat against a Turkish fleet
1586 Dom Felipe I banned Dutch vessels from Portuguese ports to protect Portuguese spice trade
1587 Sir Francis Drake attacks Spanish fleet off Cádiz
1588 Part of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon to attempt the invasion of England carrying many Portuguese soldiers
1588 Elizabeth I makes a pact with Dom António, Prior of Crato, to provide support to his claim for the Portuguese throne in return for English virtual control of the country - She send Drake with 30 ships in an unsuccessful attempt to reinstate Dom António as the King
1589 English pirates attack Horta and Angra do Heroísmo in Azores
1589 Dom António, Prior de Crato, returns with 20.000 English soldiers under Francis drake and lands at Peniche - he fails in his three week attack on Lisbon with little support from local Portuguese nobility due to his pact with Elizabeth I - he and his remaining troops sail on to England
1589 Dom António returns to England and Elizabeth sends him to Paris in exile where he later dies
1590 Dutch make first attempts to occupy parts of Brazil
1590 Don Felipe I bans English and Dutch vessels from Portuguese ports - this action forces the Dutch to establish their own spice trade with the East
1591 Sinking of the English pirate ship "Revenge" off Faial
1593 Archduke Alberto of Habsburg leaves for Holland and selects five members of Portuguese nobility to represent Don Felipe I in Portugal
1593 Dona Catarina de Bragança wants he son Dom Teodósio appointed as vice-King of Portugal but Don Felipe I replaces the body of governors with the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo as his vice-King
1593 Construction of Fort Jesus on the coast on the coast of east Africa
1595 26th August - Dom António (Prior de Crato), dies in Paris
1596 Earl of Essex sacks Faro and removes the remarkable library of Bishop of Faro.
1597 Francis Drake invades Sagres and destroys the home of "Henry the Navigator"
1598 "Edict of Nantes" which protects Protestants is published (1598-1685)
1598 13th September - Felipe II (1598 - 1621) - Spanish King Philip III
1599 North east of Brazil occupied by Dutch
1602 Birth of Salvador Correia de Sá e Benevides in Cadiz
1602 Portuguese ships attacked by combined English and Dutch fleet
1602 New laws introduced to curb hunting and encourage smaller land owners to cultivate their land
1603 Dutch introduce a policy of creating settlements in all Portuguese overseas territories
1603 Andre Furtado de Mendonça defeats and puts to flight Dutch feet off Amboino and Sunda
1604 Birth of Dom João (IV) in Vila Viçosa - 8th Duque de Bragança and future King of Portugal
1604 Dom Felipe II makes peace with the English King James I
1604 Dutch attack Mozambique
1605 Due to financial crisis all "new-Christians" can receive a General Pardon in return for a payment related to their wealth
1605 Birth of Don Felipe IV of Spain in Valladolid (1605-1655) - Future King Felipe (III) of Portugal
1606 Birth of politician and writer and Padre António Vieira - a Jesuit Priest who fought against the Inquisition (1606-1697)
1606 Dutch fail in their attempted occupation of Malacca after fierce battle
1606 Pedro Fernandes de Queirós encounters the New Hebrides
1607 Dutch fleet attacks settlement of Mozambique in Africa
1608 Birth of Padre António Vieira in Lisbon (1608-1697)
1609 Spain and Holland sign a Trade Treaty for a period of 12 years
1609 Dutch vessels reach Japan to provide trade competition to Portuguese
1614 Publication of Asian travel book "Peregrinação" by Fernão Mendes Pinto
1615 Marriage of Don Felipe IV of Spain to Elizabeth, daughter of Henry IV of France
1615 Birth of statesman and writer João Pinto Ribeiro (1617-1649)
1615 Portuguese expel French from São Luiz, Brazil
1617 Portuguese expelled from Japan by Dutch
1617 Dom Felipe II appoints a Spanish aristocrat as his vice-King in Portugal  and gives him the title of Marquês de Alenquer
1619 "Cortes" of Lisbon acknowledge Dom Felipe III to be the successor to the throne of Portugal
1619 Dom Felipe II visits Portugal for the first time
1621 Portugal ends their Peace Treaty with Holland in Goa, India
1621 15th December - Felipe III (1621 - 1640) - Spanish King Philip IV and last of House of Habsburg
1621 Dom Felipe II appoints the Duke of Olivares to govern Portugal on his behalf
1622 Aqueduct completed in Elvas
1622 English occupy Portuguese Fort of Ormuz at the mouth of Persian Gulf
1623 Saint Francisco Xavier is raised to Sainthood by Pope Urbano VIII
1624 Dutch attempt to occupy Bahia in Brazil
1624 Dutch fail to occupy Luanda in Africa
1625 Dutch expelled from Salvador - also repulsed again in 1627
1625 Portuguese and Spanish fleet expel Dutch from Bahia
1626 António de Andrade crosses Himalayas and enters Tibet
1628 Women workers in Porto stage a revolt against new Taxes on linen and wool goods
1629 Dutch fleet take possession of Salvador de Bahia in Brazil
1630 14th February - Dutch take possession Pernambuco and of all sugar plantations in northern Brazil (1630-1654) - this was their second attempt
1631 Birth of female painter Josefa de Óbidos (1631-1684)
1631 Jerómino Chingália, son of Sultan of Mombassa, revolts against Portuguese occupation and is assassinated
1631 Civil unrest in the Alentejo against new Taxes
1633 Marriage of Dom João IV to Dona Luísa de Gusmão, daughter of Duke of Medina-Sidónia
1634 Dona Margarida, the Duchess of Mântua, appointed vice-King of Portugal by Dom Felipe III but ill received on her arrival in Portugal
1634 Dom Miguel de Vasconcelos appointed by Dom Felipe III to govern Portugal - much hated by aristocrats and peasants alike
1634 Birth of Dom Teodósio, 9th Duque de Bragança (1634-1653)
1634 Dutch occupy Paribas in Brazil
1634 Portuguese expelled from Ethiopia in Africa
1635 António Vieira is ordained as a Priest
1635 Dutch take possession of Paraíba
1635 France declares war on Castile
1635 Civil unrest throughout the Alentejo on introduction of further Taxes
1637 Most Portuguese ports inactive for lack of trade
1637 "Revolta da Manuelinho" - inhabitants of Évora stage revolt against their Spanish rule due to new Taxes imposed - revolt spreads through Alentejo into the Algarve
1637 João Maurico, Count of Nassau, appointed Governor of Dutch territory in Brazil and he take possession of the Fortress of Elmina in West Africa - an important centre of the African gold trade
1638 Fleet and army from Portugal fails to drive Dutch out of Brazil - Dutch fail to take Baía
1638 Japan bars Portuguese ships from their ports
1638 Duke of Olivares fails in his attempt to gain support from Portuguese to send troops to fight the French under the Spanish flag - France make an unsuccessful approach of support to the House of Bragança which is rejected by the family
1638 Dutch occupy Agrium Island off coast of Africa
1638 Birth of Dona Catarina de Bragança - the future wife of Charles II Of England
1639 Duke of Bragança accept post of "General of Sea and Earth" from Dom Felipe III
1639 Leading Portuguese aristocrats decline order of Duque de Olivares to travel to Spanish court in Madrid
1639 Dutch fleet take possession of Ceylon and Malacca
1640 Portuguese state finances in serious trouble with troops lacking arms and castles without supplies
1640 Prince of Catalonia declares war on Don Felipe IV of Spain
1640 June - Spain demands that Portugal provide an army to quell the riots in Catalonia - Portuguese aristocracy and landowners object
1640 France threatens to invade Portugal
1640 Portuguese revolt and separate from Spain
1566 French pirates sack Funchal
1640 Portuguese and other foreigners are expelled from Japan
1640 Dutch capture Portuguese colony of Bahia in Brazil
1640 Band of noble leaders plan "coup" - Dom António Vaz de Almeida, Dom Rodrigo da Cunha (Archbishop of Lisbon), Dom Miguel de Almeida, Dom Pedro de Mendonça, and João Pontes Ribeiro
1640 1st December - uprising against Spanish possession of Portuguese throne by arresting vice-King Marquês de la Puebla and the assassination of Miguel de Vasconcelos - Duke of Bragança arrives in Lisbon to popular acclaim and accepts the throne of Portugal
-- --
8th Period Second Dynasty of Portugal - Avis (14th Century to 16th Century)
10th Period Fourth Dynasty of Portugal - Bragança (17th Century to 20th Century)

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The above was compiled by Michael Tannock from published information in the Portuguese language. While every care was taken in obtaining the above facts some conflicting dates, information and spelling were encountered. In such cases, our own discretion was used in choosing which facts to publish.